Douglas Laycock

  • Robert E. Scott Distinguished Professor of Law
  • Class of 1963 Research Professor in Honor of Graham C. Lilly and Peter W. Low
  • Professor of Religious Studies

Douglas Laycock is perhaps the nation’s leading authority on the law of religious liberty and also on the law of remedies. He has taught and written about these topics for four decades at the University of Chicago, the University of Texas, the University of Michigan, and now Virginia.

Laycock has testified frequently before Congress and has argued many cases in the courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court. He is the author of the leading casebook Modern American Remedies, the award-winning monograph The Death of the Irreparable Injury Rule, and many articles in the leading law reviews. He co-edited a collection of essays, Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty.

His many writings on religious liberty are being published in a five-volume collection. Religious Liberty: Volume One: Overviews and History, and Volume Two: The Free Exercise Clause, have been published. Volume Three: Religious Freedom Restoration Acts and Same-Sex Marriage Legislation, and Volume Four: Federal Religious Liberty Legislation After RFRA, are ready for the printer, and Volume Five: The Free Speech and Establishment Clauses is in preparation.

Laycock is vice president of the American Law Institute and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

He earned his B.A. from Michigan State University and his J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School.

Scholarship Profile: "A Towering Figure" (Virginia Journal 2011)

Education

  • J.D.
    University of Chicago Law School
    1973
  • B.A.
    Michigan State University
    1970

REMEDIES

Books

Modern American Remedies: Cases and Materials (concise 4th ed., Aspen 2012; 4th ed., Aspen 2010; 3d ed. Aspen 2002; 2d ed., Little Brown 1994; 1st ed., Little Brown 1985) (with Teacher’s Manuals and annual Supplements or Teachers’ Updates).

The Death of the Irreparable Injury Rule (Oxford University Press, 1991).

Articles and Review Essays

"Spokeo v. Robins - Brief of Restitution and Remedies Scholars as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondent" (with Mark P. Gergen and Doug Rendleman).
SSRN

“Restoring Restitution to the Canon,” 110 Mich. L. Rev. 929 (2012) (reviewing American Law Institute, Restatement (Third) of Restitution and Unjust Enrichment (2011)).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“The Neglected Defense of Undue Hardship (and the Doctrinal Train Wreck in Boomer v. Atlantic Cement),” 4 J. Tort L. no. 3, art. 3 (2012)..
SSRN

“Remedies,” in Stanley N. Katz, ed., 5 Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History125 (Oxford University Press, 2009).

“Voting with Your Feet Is No Substitute for Constitutional Rights,” 32 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 29 (2009).
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“How Remedies Became a Field: A History,” 27 Rev. Litig. 161 (2008) (symposium).
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“Introduction,” to Symposium, Remedies: The Bottom Line of Justice, 27 Rev. Litig. 1 (2007).
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“Choosing Remedies: The Misleading Irreparable Injury Rule,” 32 The Advocate 7 (Fall 2005) (symposium).

“Due Process of Law in Trilateral Disputes,” 78 Iowa L. Rev. 1011 (1993) (symposium).
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“The Triumph of Equity,” 56 L. & Contemp. Probs. No. 3, at 53 (Summer 1993) (symposium).
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“The Death of the Irreparable Injury Rule,” 103 Harv. L. Rev. 687 (1990).
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“The Remedies Issues: Compensatory Damages, Specific Performance, Punitive Damages, Supersedeas Bonds, and Abstention,” 9 Rev. Litig. 473 (1990) (symposium).
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“The Scope and Significance of Restitution,” 67 Tex. L. Rev. 1277 (1989).
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“Consent Decrees Without Consent: The Rights of Nonconsenting Third Parties,” 1987 U. Chi. Legal F. 103 (symposium).
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“Continuing Violations, Disparate Impact in Compensation, and Other Title VII Issues,” 49L. & Contemp. Probs. No. 4, at 53 (Aug. 1986) (symposium).
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“Injunctions and the Irreparable Injury Rule,” 57 Tex. L. Rev. 1065 (1979) (reviewing Owen M. Fiss, The Civil Rights Injunction).
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“Federal Interference with State Prosecutions: The Cases Dombrowski Forgot,” 46 U. Chi. L. Rev. 636 (1979).
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“Federal Interference with State Prosecutions: The Need for Prospective Relief,” 1977Sup. Ct. Rev. 193.
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“Civil Rights and Civil Liberties,” 54 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 390 (1977) (parts I and II) (symposium).

Report

Preliminary Report on a Restatement 2d of Restitution: A Report to the Director of the American Law Institute (1987).

Book Review

Review of Edward Yorio, Contract Enforcement: Specific Performance and Injunctions, 45Bus. Lawyer 1377 (1990).
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Chapter

“Remedies,” in 5 Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History 125 (Stanley N. Katz ed. 2009).


RELIGIOUS LIBERTY

Books

Religious Liberty: Volume I—Overviews and History (Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2010).

Religious Liberty: Volume II—The Free Exercise Clause (Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2010) (forthcoming).

Religious Liberty: Volume III—Religious Liberty Legislation (Wm. B. Eerdmans) (in preparation).

Religious Liberty: Volume IV—The Free Speech and Establishment Clauses (Wm. B. Eerdmans) (in preparation).

Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty: Emerging Conflicts (editor with Anthony M. Picarello & Robin Fretwell Wilson) (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).

Articles and Review Essays

"Generally Applicable Law and the Free Exercise of Religion," Neb. L. Rev. (forthcoming 2016).
SSRN

“Protecting Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty” (with Thomas C. Berg), in W. Cole Durham, Jr. & Donlu Thayer, eds., Religion and Equality: Law in Conflict 167 (Routledge, 2016).

"Religious Liberty for Politically Active Minority Groups: A Response to NeJaime and Siegel," Yale L.J. (2016).
Link

“Imaginary Contradictions: A Reply to Professor Oleske,” 67 Vand. L. Rev. En Banc 89 (2014).

“Religious Liberty and the Culture Wars,” 2014 U. Ill. L. Rev. 839.
SSRN

77 Theological Stud. 743 (2016) (reviewing Thomas E. Buckley, Establishing Religious Freedom: Jefferson’s Statute in Virginia (2013)).

"Protecting Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty" (with Thomas C. Berg), 99 Va. L. Rev. In Brief 1 (2013).

"Edward Schempp and His Family," 38 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. 63 (2013).

“Hosanna-Tabor and the Ministerial Exception,” 35 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 839 (2012).
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"RLUIPA: Necessary, Modest, and Under-Enforced" (with Luke W. Goodrich), 39 Fordham Urb. L.J. 1021 (2012).
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"Sex, Atheism, and the Free Exercise of Religion," 88 U. Det. Mercy L. Rev. (2011).
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"Government-Sponsored Religious Displays: Transparent Rationalizations and Expedient Post-Modernisms," 61 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 1211 (2011).
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"Reviews of a Lifetime," 89 Tex. L. Rev. 949 (2011).
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"Conference Introduction: American Religious Liberty, French Laicite, and the Veil," 49 J. Cath. Legal Stud. 21 (2010).
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"A Conscripted Prophets' Guesses about the Future of Religious Liberty in America," 2010Fides et Libertas 62.

“The Religious Exemptions Debate,” 11 Rutgers J.L. & Religion 139 (2009), available atwww.lawandreligion.com.

“Church Autonomy Revisited,” 7 Geo. J.L. & Pub Pol’y 253 (2009).

“Why the Supreme Court Changed Its Mind About Government Aid to Religious Institutions: It’s a Lot More Than Just Republican Appointments,” 2008 BYU L. Rev. 275 (symposium).
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“High-Value Speech and the Basic Educational Mission of a Public School: Some Preliminary Thoughts,” 12 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 111 (2008) (symposium).
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“Substantive Neutrality Revisited,” 110 W. Va. L. Rev. 51 (2007) (symposium).
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“Regulatory Exemptions of Religious Behavior and the Original Understanding of the Establishment Clause,” 81 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1793 (2006).
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“Church and State in the United States: Competing Conceptions and Historic Changes,” 13 Ind. J. Global Legal Stud. 503 (2006).
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“Religious Liberty in America: A Rapid-Fire Overview,” 33 Hum. Rts. 3 (No. 3, Summer 2006).
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“Roundtable Discussion: Religious Organizations Filing for Bankruptcy,” 13 Am. Bankr. Inst. L. Rev. 25 (2005) (with others).
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“Theology Scholarships, The Pledge of Allegiance, and Religious Liberty: Avoiding the Extremes but Missing the Liberty,” 118 Harv. L. Rev. 156 (2004).
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“The Mistakes in Locke v. Davey and the Future of State Payments for Services Provided by Religious Institutions” (with Thomas C. Berg), 40 Tulsa L. Rev. 227 (2004).
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“The Many Meanings of Separation,” 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1667 (2003) (reviewing Philip Hamburger, Separation of Church and State).
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“Religion in the Workplace: Proceedings of the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association of American Law Schools Section on Law and Religion,” 4 Em. Rts. & Emp. Pol’y J. 87 (2000) (with others).

“The Supreme Court and Religious Liberty,” 40 Cath. Law. 25 (2000).
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“Debate 2: Should the Government Provide Financial Support for Religious Institutions That Offer Faith-Based Social Services” (with others), 1 Rutgers J.L. & Relig. 5 (2000).
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“State RFRAs and Land Use Regulation,” 32 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 755 (1999) (reprinted in Deborah Mans, ed., 2000 Zoning and Planning Law Handbook 655 (West 2000)).
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“Conceptual Gulfs in City of Boerne v. Flores,” 39 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 743 (1998) (derived from 1995 Wythe Lecture).
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“Religious Freedom and International Human Rights in the United States Today,” 12Emory Int’l L. Rev. 951 (1998).
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“Round Table Discussion on International Human Rights Standards in the United States: The Case of Religion or Belief,” 12 Emory Int’l L. Rev. 973 (1998) (with others).
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“The Underlying Unity of Separation and Neutrality,” 46 Emory L.J. 43 (1997) (symposium).
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“Religious Liberty as Liberty,” 7 J. Contemp. Legal Issues 313 (1996) (symposium).
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“Freedom of Speech That Is Both Religious and Political,” 29 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 793 (1996) (symposium).
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“Continuity and Change in the Threat to Religious Liberty: The Reformation Model in the Late Twentieth Century,” 80 Minn. L. Rev. 1047 (1996) (Lockhart Lecture).
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“Academic Freedom, Religious Commitment, and Religious Integrity,” 78 Marquette L. Rev. 297 (1995) (symposium).
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“RFRA, Congress, and the Ratchet,” 56 Mont. L. Rev. 145 (1995) (symposium).
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“Interpreting the Religious Freedom Restoration Act,” 73 Tex. L. Rev. 209 (1994) (with Oliver Thomas).
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“Free Exercise and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act,” 62 Fordham L. Rev. 883 (1994) (lecture).
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“The Religious Freedom Restoration Act,” 1993 BYU L. Rev. 221 (symposium).
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“The Rights of Religious Academic Communities,” 20 J. College & Univ. L. 15 (1993) (symposium).

“The Benefits of the Establishment Clause,” 42 DePaul L. Rev. 373 (1992) (symposium).
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“Summary and Synthesis: The Crisis in Religious Liberty,” 60 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 841 (1992) (symposium).
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“‘Noncoercive’ Support for Religion: Another False Claim About the Establishment Clause,” 26 Val. U.L. Rev. 37 (1992) (symposium).
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“The Remnants of Free Exercise,” 1990 Sup. Ct. Rev. 1.
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“Formal, Substantive, and Disaggregated Neutrality Toward Religion,” 39 DePaul L. Rev.993 (1990) (Center for Church/State Studies Lecture).
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“Text, Intent, and the Religion Clauses,” 4 Notre Dame J.L. Ethics & Pub. Pol’y 683 (1990) (symposium).
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“The Supreme Court’s Assault on Free Exercise, and the Amicus Brief that Was Never Filed,” 8 J.L. & Religion 99 (1990).
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“Academic Freedom and the Free Exercise of Religion,” 66 Tex. L. Rev. 1455 (1988) (with Susan Waelbroeck) (symposium).
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“Equal Access and Moments of Silence: The Equal Status of Religious Speech by Private Speakers,” 81 Nw. U.L. Rev. 1 (1986) (symposium).
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“‘Nonpreferential’ Aid to Religion: A False Claim About Original Intent,” 27 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 875 (1986) (symposium).
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“A Survey of Religious Liberty in the United States,” 47 Ohio St. L.J. 409 (1986) (symposium).
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“Tax Exemptions for Racially Discriminatory Religious Schools,” 60 Tex. L. Rev. 259 (1982).
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“Towards a General Theory of the Religion Clauses: The Case of Church Labor Relations and the Right to Church Autonomy,” 81 Colum. L. Rev. 1373 (1981).
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“Civil Rights and Civil Liberties,” 54 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 390 (1977) (part III) (symposium).
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Report

God Alone Is Lord of the Conscience: Policy Statement and Recommendations Regarding Religious Liberty (Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)) (1989) (with Committee on Religious Liberty and Church/State Relations) (reprinted in 8 J.L. & Religion 331 (1990).

Chapters

“The Campaign against Religious Liberty,” in Micah Schwartzman et al., eds., The Rise of Corporate Religious Liberty 231 (Oxford University Press, 2016).

“Religious Liberty Is a Secular Liberal Value,” in Stephen V. Monsma & Stanley W. Carlson-Thies, eds., Free to Serve: Protecting the Religious Freedom of Faith-Based Organizations 160 (Brazos Press, 2015).

“Afterword,” in Douglas Laycock, Anthony R. Picarello, Jr., & Robin Fretwell Wilson, eds.,Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty: Emerging Conflicts (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).

“Employment in Religious Organizations” (with Patrick Schiltz), in James A. Serritella et al., eds., Religious Organizations in the United States: A Study of Identity, Liberty, and the Law 527 (Carolina Academic Press, 2006).

“La Religion et l’État aux États-Unis: Affrontement des Théories et Changements Historiques,” in Elisabeth Zoller, ed., La Conception Américaine de la Laïcité (Dalloz, 2005).

“Zoning” (with Thomas C. Berg), in Catharine Cookson, ed., Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom (Routledge, 2003).

“Theories of Interpretation: Free Exercise and Establishment Clause: General,” in Paul Finkelman, ed., Religion and American Law: An Encyclopedia 516 (Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000).

“Supreme Court Review,” in United States Catholic Conference, Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth National Meeting of Diocesan Attorneys 5 (1998).

“Original Intent and the Constitution Today,” in James E. Wood, ed., The First Freedom: Religion and the Bill of Rights 87 (J.M. Dawson Institute of Church State Studies, 1990).

“Tort Liability, Spiritual Counseling, and the First Amendment,” in Am. Bar Ass’n, Tort and Religion 23 (1989).

“The Right to Church Autonomy as Part of Free Exercise of Religion,” in Dean M. Kelley, ed., Government Intervention in Religious Affairs II 28 (Pilgrim Press, 1986).

Book Reviews

“God vs. the Gavel: A Brief Rejoinder,” 105 Mich. L. Rev. 1545 (2007).
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“A Syllabus of Errors,” 105 Mich. L. Rev. 1169 (2007) (reviewing Marci Hamilton, God vs. the Gavel).
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“Book Note,” 44 Pol. Stud. 1015 (1996) (reviewing Jesse Choper, Securing Religious Liberty: Principles for Judicial Interpretation of the Religion Clauses).

“Book Note,” 31 J. Church & State 303 (1989) (reviewing Mark Tushnet, Red, White, and Blue: A Critical Analysis of Constitutional Law).
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“Responding to the Nonpreferentialists,” 4 J.L. & Religion 241 (1986) (reviewing Thomas Curry, The First Freedoms, and Leonard Levy, The Establishment Clause).
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Letters 

Letter to Senator Robert Duncan Endorsing SJR 4 and SJR 49
PDF 

Letter to Senator Robert Duncan in Response to Memorandum by Paul Benjamin Linton of Texas Alliance for Life
PDF

OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

Articles and Review Essays

“Voting with Your Feet Is No Substitute for Constitutional Rights,” 32 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 29 (2009).

"The Clear and Present Danger Test,” 25 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. Soc’y 161 (2000).

“Federalism as a Structural Threat to Liberty,” 23 Harv. J.L. Pub. Pol’y 67 (1999) (symposium).

“Individual Liberty and Constitutional Architecture: The Founders’ Prompt Correction of Their Own Mistake,” 16 Harv. J.L. Pub. Pol’y 75 (1993) (symposium).
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“Equal Citizens of Equal and Territorial States: The Constitutional Foundations of Choice of Law,” 92 Colum. L. Rev. 249 (1992) (Orgain Lecture at Texas).
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“Vicious Stereotypes in Polite Society,” 8 Const. Comment. 395 (1991).
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“Notes on the Role of Judicial Review, the Expansion of Federal Power, and the Structure of Constitutional Rights,” 99 Yale L.J. 1711 (1990) (reviewing Robert Nagel, Constitutional Cultures).
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“Equality and the Citizens of Sister States,” 15 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 431 (1987) (symposium).
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“Constitutional Theory Matters,” 65 Tex. L. Rev. 767 (1987) (symposium).
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“The Ultimate Unity of Rights and Utilities,” 64 Tex. L. Rev. 407 (1985).
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“Due Process and Separation of Powers: The Effort to Make the Due Process Clauses Nonjusticiable,” 60 Tex. L. Rev. 875 (1982).
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“Taking Constitutions Seriously: A Theory of Judicial Review,” 59 Tex. L. Rev. 343 (1981) (reviewing John Hart Ely, Democracy and Distrust).
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Chapters

“Protecting Liberty in a Federal System: The US Experience,” in Basil Markesinis, ed.,Patterns of Federalism and Regionalism: Lessons for the UK 119 (Hart Publishing. 2006).

Report

Report of the Task Force on Assembly and Expression (University of Texas at Austin (2003).

Book Review

Review of Robert H. Bork, The Tempting of America (1990), 101 Ethics 661 (1991).

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Key players in the U.S. Supreme Court case Fisher v. University of Texas (2016) discuss its implications for the future of affir